What Does Unix-Like Mean

What Does “Unix-Like” Mean?

There is so much tech terminology and so little time – so it helps quite a bit when we can think of things within categories. In the case of operating systems, there are essentially two. There are the ones from Microsoft, descendants of Windows NT (for “new technology”). On the other side are basically the remainder of options. These other systems – such as Chrome OS, Orbis OS, iOS, Mac OS X, Android, and Linux – all have a code structure that is loosely described as “Unix-like.”

 

UNIX & its many offspring

 

We can start to understand the term Unix-like by looking at Unix construction and the operating systems created with it as their basis. Coders at Bell Labs, an AT&T facility, created Unix in 1969; Ken Thompson is the specific person credited with its development by the Linux Information Project.

 

Many technologists and organizations have developed operating systems from Unix over the years. However, there are generally two branches of Unix’s “next of kin.”

 

One branch was within education. The chief example is the Unix-like, open source OS Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD). This system is built into such further offshoots as FreeBSD, NetBSD, and OpenBSD. In fact, BSD was used to create NeXTStep, which was in turn used to design Mac OS X (from which iOS was developed). In fact, the operating system of the PlayStation 4, Orbis OS, was coded with BSD as its foundation.

 

The GNU project, an effort launched by Richard Stallman to aid in making licensing terms loose enough to facilitate free use of programs, was inspired by the tightening of language within AT&T’s Unix agreement. MINIX was a Unix-like system that was intended for use within academia, and Linux is a descendant of MINIX. When we use a Linux OX now, we are actually using GNU/Linux, notes Chris Hoffman in How-To Geek – because these systems combine a Linux kernel with numerous GNU utilities.

 

GNU/Linux (otherwise, and commonly known simple as Linux) is not a straight offshoot of BSD. However, it is similar because it uses Unix as its initial structure and also grew out of scholarly circles. Many different operating systems – notably Android, Steam OS, and Chrome OS but also ones used on many devices – are rooted in Linux.

 

The above systems were all a single side of development from the original code, the educational offshoots. The other side was commercial systems that were created, with many different companies wanting to promote their own version. These systems are now much less prevalent, but they have included AT&T UNIX, HP-UX, IBM-AIX, SCO UnixWare, SGI IRIX, and Solaris.

 

What do we mean by “Unix-like”?

 

What does the term Unix-like mean specifically, though? It is a blanket way to refer to many different operating systems that all share the same common structure – as opposed to the one used by Microsoft. Unix-like also grew from confusion and debate over what should be considered a Unix system.

 

When we call an OS “Unix-like,” that generally will mean that the source code of the OS (the version of the software as it was originally coded) is directly traceable to, has similar properties to, and is explicitly based on Unix. Examples are Compaq’s True64, Solaris, IRIX, HP-UX, and IBM’s AIX.

 

The umbrella-term Unix-like also refers to clones of Unix. A clone is software that performs in a similar way to other software but does not have the same source code.

 

The way that the prominent Unix clones act is so, well, er, Unix-like that often computer scientists and expert technicians simply refer to them as Unix. These systems should be understood as clones, though, and not Unix-based but certainly Unix-like. These clones include the BSDs (Darwin, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD) Linux (in all its distros), MINIX, Cygwin, and QNX.

 

For the most part, a Unlike-like OS will have most of the additions and elaborations that were appended to the original at the University of California – Berkeley. These features, often called the Berkeley extensions, contains the vi text editor, virtual memory (enabling simulations of extra memory by the hard disk drive), transmission control protocol / internet protocol (TCP/IP, the primary protocol for the internet and local networking), and C shell (csh). Since these capabilities from the Berkeley extensions are so core to the functioning of Unix-like systems, people have sometimes posited that modern systems of this type should be called “Unix/Berkeley” (or “Unix-Berkeley-like”?).

 

Now let’s look at BSD directly: this OS, short for Berkeley Software Distribution, is a Unix clone that was written at the University of California in the 70s and early 80s. Generally BSD and its offshoots are called Unix; actually, one version was even called BSD UNIX 4.0 (October 1980).

 

Controversy related to the UNIX name

 

UNIX is the initial name of the operating system that was created at Bell Labs – that part we know and is indisputable. The way that the term has been understood since that point has become much fuzzier. UNIX became a trademark, and an association created in 1996, called the Open Group, eventually acquired ownership of it. The Open Group states that operating systems should only be called UNIX if they agree with the body’s Single UNIX Specification and pay them a sizable fee. In this sense, it is possible that a system could be called UNIX legally even if were dissimilar to the original and did not contain any of its source code.

 

Apple has questioned the legitimacy of the UNIX trademark – claiming that the term is generic and should not be protected by the government. Apple actually has stated on its website, “Beneath the surface of Mac OS X lies an industrial-strength UNIX foundation.”

The Open Group and Apple have been sparring over usage in this manner.

 

A couple key UNIX or Unix-like characteristics

 

Key design characteristics of the original version of Unix are shared by today’s modern operating systems.

 

One of the basic centerpieces of the way Unix is constructed is that you have small utilities that are fine-tuned to perform single tasks. When you interact with the OS, you are able to leverage these tools in part by blending them, via pipes or otherwise, to carry out more sophisticated activities. By elaborating on modules in this manner and combining utilities, shell scripts also become simpler.

 

Another aspect of Unix that makes it special is that there is just one file system through which software is able to exchange data and interact. All components of the computing ecosystem become represented by files within this model – including special files with system details and even hardware. The contrast to this architecture is the drive letters of Windows (C, D, etc.), a format that Microsoft brought over from DOS. In contrast to breaking everything up into drives, there is one unified directory hierarchy on Unix.

 

What does it mean to have full root access?

 

You will sometimes hear coders and others discussing infrastructure talk about full root access. Full root access means that you have complete superuser privileges over your system – administrative-level control. The root user is unique to Linux and other Unix-like operating systems.

 

Do you want super-fast performance and root access? At KnownHost, our managed VPS hosting plans come with full root access for complete control. Compare plans.

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8 Key Social Rules to Guide Ecommerce

8 Key Social Rules to Guide E-Commerce

Diamond Candles is an e-commerce company that specializes in (you can’t make this up) soy candles with rings inside them. Maybe you are familiar with this product; well, this market: in the Internet era, there is a market for soy candles with rings inside them. It’s a niche, that’s for sure. And the arguable ridiculousness of putting a ring inside a candle is exactly why this company is succeeding on social media – despite not having spent a dollar on advertising.

The brand, which has 1,036,526 Facebook Page Likes and counting, had difficulty growing when the business was originally formed. The problem was that marketing funds were low, and the product was not getting the kind of exposure that the founders felt it deserved. They figured out how to grow when they embraced social media and realized that any user could be their brand ambassador once they experienced (at least digitally and visually if not in person) the one-of-a-kind product that they offered. As customers started sharing their pictures more on the social sites, co-founder Justin Winter took that incredible user-generated content and used it to create additional value for the company. Winters and his team have grown the brand very simply, through word-of-mouth social posts and through carefully produced images. And let’s be honest, it’s even more impressive that the brand has been able to get a million Facebook fans while having lower than a 4-star rating (as of July 2017) on Facebook.

Diamond Candles is relevant because it is one of the social media success stories cited by web entrepreneur and marketing thought leader Sujan Patel in Forbes. Many of us would like to achieve the same e-commerce success on social media that Diamond Candles has; and there is certainly money to be made, worldwide. As an example, let’s look at the US-based online shopper: that person now purchases fully half (50%) of their products online, according to a 2016 UPS/comScore study that surveyed 5000 people in the US (where online shoppers now make up 79% of the population); in fact, to loop back to social, the same study found that the portion of people that said social posts influenced their buying decisions rose from 25 to 34% year-over-year, while the segment who said that they purchased something through a social site was at 23%.

Do you want to have the success of Diamond Candles on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Pinterest, Snapchat, and/or elsewhere? Let’s talk about 8 golden rules of success (like a diamond within a candle, there are golden ideas hidden within this piece) espoused by Patel and others – for smarter, more powerful integration of online sales with social media.

Rule #1 – Facilitate post-sale sharing.

It can be easy to focus so much on the process of getting the sale that you forget to sell after the sale occurs, advises Ellie Martin of Startup Change Group. Of course, you want the person to keep buying or to otherwise help boost your revenue – and a very simple way to do that is with post-sale sharing buttons.

Just look at all your various forms of messaging following the sale (thank you page, confirmation email, receipt email, newsletter, etc.) and consider how social buttons can better be brought into the fold. (If you generally want to improve your game post-sale, you can check out this advice on how to improve customer lifetime value with post-sale content – which includes this great quote from marketer Dan Kennedy: “I’ve long believed that, rather than getting customers to make sales, it is smarter to make sales to get customers.”)

Rule #2 – Tell stories.

Patel says to narrate your brand. He gives the example of BeardBrand as a business that has excelled in this way. BeardBrand actually didn’t just expand by telling stories; they did so by telling them in a way that both built a recognizable brand identity and even created an identity to represent the buyer: the “Urban Beardsman.” By carefully crafting characterization and plotlines, the company was able to carve out a more specific space for itself, resulting in first-year sales that hit $120k per month. (On a related note, sadly, StacheBrand.com is already taken.)

Rule #3 – Celebrate every holiday.

You want to think more broadly than November and December when it comes to thinking about seasonal communications, says Alex D’Amore on Social Media Explorer. Plan well in advance for the year. You will undoubtedly need a progressively granular calendar to get everything organized and executed properly.

In terms of key dates, what is relevant to your business? For instance, anyone selling Apple products should pay attention to when their launches occur. We all know (except, perhaps, some of the robots reading this) how critical trending hashtags and language are to social prominence.

Rule #4 – Tie into a higher purpose.

Incorporate something for a nonprofit cause, says D’Amore. Whatever it is that you do for a charity can be based on social media or elsewhere, but you can certainly use social media for its promotion – and probably will score greater rapport with your customers for doing so.

Rule #5 – Create an air of exclusivity.

You open the doors to the business, and you want people to keep flowing in – to a point. It can also be effective to control access. Martin suggests making some sales and products (particularly in the case of clearances or raffles) only available when people follow you.

Rule #6 – Promote UGC.

No, not UFC: UGC. However, it does relate, because user-generated content can (sort of) help you to roundhouse-kick your niche competition on social media. User-generated content is just as it sounds: content created by your customers on social sites, either on their own or in order to take part in a giveaway or contest you organize. How powerful is UGC, or CGC (consumer-generated content)? Business Insider found that shoppers who see CGC are 97% likelier to buy; that is compelling.

Images that shoppers create of your products, as with the ever-popular picture-of-my-most-recent-meal, should really be taken seriously from a business perspective. Consumers like photos taken by consumers more than they do those taken by professionals – a 77% to 22% preference for amateur-generated Instagram photographs on product description pages over those created by career photographers, according to research by Yotpo.

Why are your images so important? “Using authentic visuals will demonstrate social proof, drive high-intent users from Instagram to product pages, increase on-site conversions, and improve ad performance,” notes Aaron Orendorff on Social Media Examiner.

Beyond that, there is additional value in repurposing if the Yotpo study holds true: once cleared with the appropriate parties, you could (maybe?) bring some of that UGC onto your product pages to give your site itself a better sense of community.

Rule #7 – Be supportive.

Social media is not just about posting content and interacting at the level of content but also serving as a communication channel. You want to pay attention to your messages. For one thing, Facebook lets users know how long it takes for you to reply, says Martin. Remember that this environment is not just a content channel but also a support mechanism.

Rule #8 – Use great site speed to support your social.

People think of social media as supporting the website, but the reverse is also true: if the user experience on your site is great, it will help further boost your social growth. One easy way to deliver great UX is simply performance-based, with the low latency offered by enterprise-grade solid state drives. See our managed SSD VPS hosting.

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What Can You Do with a Virtual Server?

What Can You Do with a Virtual Server?

This article describes what a virtual private server (VPS) is and how it relates to other major technology concepts: virtual private networks, the virtual machine (VM), shared hosting, and dedicated hosting. We then look at especially compelling reasons to use a VPS and a few of the most prominent ways that one can be used.

 

  • Virtual Private Network vs. Virtual Private Server
  • Getting to Know the Virtual Server
  • Strong Reasons for Adopting a VPS
  • Typical Uses of a VPS
  • Managed vs. Unmanaged

 

Virtual Private Network vs. Virtual Private Server

 

Two major concepts that have closely aligned names are the virtual private network (VPN) and the virtual private server (VPS). While both are virtualized and centered on privacy and security, that’s about as far as the similarity goes.

 

VPN: This technology allows you to securely use the internet and connect to private networks (such as a company’s internal one). All traffic is passed through an encrypted tunnel, and each device uses a remote, proxy server – concealing your IP address, what you do, and where you are.

 

VPS: The virtual private server is an advanced, secure way to divide the resources of a physical server (the main host) within a data center. A hosting provider creates VPSs by slicing up one piece of hardware into multiple, independently operating instances.

 

Getting to Know the Virtual Server

 

Perhaps the best way to approach the virtual private server is the idea of a virtual machine. A VM allows you to run an emulation of a computer within your computer, drawing on the resources of the physical one –  disk space, RAM, CPU, etc. This tactic allows you to run an entirely separate operating system (OS) solely for the purposes of the VM, even if its type and version of OS are identical to what’s on your hardware.

 

Because you only are using a portion of the resources for the VM, you can have several of them running on one computer or server, as is common with hosting services. A hosting provider that offers VPS hosting has a vast number of physical servers that each contain multiple virtual machines. While demarcation and intrusion prevention within the physical machine is not a huge concern on your own PC, VPS hosts must have security safeguards in place to ensure isolation of each customer’s server. That’s why the terminology virtual private server is used – to denote the attention paid to privacy and the server programs that are typically loaded onto this type of VM.

 

Strong Reasons for Adopting a VPS

 

Shared hosting, cloud hosting, and dedicated hosting are the three main alternatives to a VPS.

 

Shared hosting: With shared hosting, your site is stored and served from the same physical machine as many other customers – possibly hundreds of them. All domains are drawing from the same CPU, RAM, and other resources.  This type of hosting is the lowest-priced option. However, your site’s speed and reliability suffer from other users, and you don’t get root access.

 

Cloud hosting: This type of hosting is slightly more expensive than shared hosting (similarly priced to VPS hosting). Rather than using a single server to store and load your site, a cloud system distributes resources across many different computers for faster response times. However, this model typically doesn’t give you root access, and its distributed structure presents fundamental security challenges.

 

Dedicated hosting: This format means that an entire physical server is used solely for your site and applications. While you do have all the resources reserved for your own purposes, a dedicated server is substantially more expensive than shared hosting.

The primary reasons that someone will choose a VPS are performance, flexibility, error-proof sandbox, and security. Let’s look at each of those factors:

 

  •  – Performance – When you switch to a VPS, you will get guaranteed resources. That means traffic spikes on other domains stored on the physical server won’t slow down your site.
  •  – Flexibility – A VPS can be considered your own remote computer. While the primary purpose of a VPS for most hosting customers is to serve websites, you can perform any functions on your VPS (within the hosting provider’s guidelines) as you can on a PC.
  •  – Error-proof sandbox – Virtual private servers give you “do-over” potential because they exist within a virtual sandbox. Damaging a virtual server won’t impact the operating system running on the hardware itself. “The VPS can be rebooted or reinstalled without much issue except maybe for lost data (so always keep backups),” notes Joel Lee of MakeUseOf. “On a dedicated host, a mistake could cause permanent damage.”
  •  – Security – Other users within the physical server can’t hack your virtual sandbox and access your VPS through the relatively simple means they can on a shared server.

 

Typical Uses of a VPS

 

Above, we got a basic sense of what a VPS is and factors that make it attractive. Now, let’s look at some of the ways that this route is useful to people on a day-to-day basis:

 

  1. Serving a website

 

The main reason that someone signs up for a VPS is that they need a server through which to run their site. When you adopt one, you should notice that your site is performing better than it was on a shared account (because of the guaranteed allotment of resources). Also, the full root access gives you better control. You are able to install and get rid of whatever programs you want.

 

Example: You can use a VPS to run your e-commerce platform (Magento, WooCommerce, Shopify, etc.). With the stronger resources of a VPS over shared hosting, you have a competitive advantage over many other sites in terms of stability, speed, and general user experience.

 

  1. Hosting a server or business files

 

Sometimes people will use a VPS to run a Minecraft server or host Mumble for private chatting. Businesses will often use it to host media or other files.

 

  1. Testing

Virtual servers are a cost-effective way to test anything before you bring it live. That includes new environments, operating systems, applications, frameworks, or anything else.

 

  1. Torrents

 

You can use a VPS for torrenting, in which case the machine is called a seedbox. By moving your torrent activity to a VPS, you clear out that bandwidth on your local system and designate a 24/7 machine for that purpose.

 

  1. Backups

 

You can also use a VPS for the storage of key files. That’s something that customers will often do if there is extra space available beyond what they need for their primary purposes. Assuming that it’s leftover space, you are able to effectively get free file storage in this way – and it’s within a private environment, so your security is strong.

 

Managed vs. Unmanaged

 

One final key consideration when you look into a virtual private server is whether you want to get an unmanaged or managed VPS plan.

 

If you are unsure which way to go and perhaps don’t feel technically confident with a VPS, “it is recommended that you go with a managed VPS solution,” advises Creativeoverflow. “[I]t is better to go ahead with a specialist hosting company that can manage the technical aspects of your VPS solution.”

 

*****

 

Are you considering a virtual private server to run your website or for any other purpose? At KnownHost, our hosting packages – all of which are managed based on our 15+ years of experience – offer great speed, incredible support, and a 99.9% uptime guarantee. Compare managed VPS plans.

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Understanding VPS Hosting

12 Facts You Need to Know to Understand VPS Hosting

To understand VPS hosting, you basically need to know what hosting is and what a virtual private server (VPS) is. This piece briefly explores both of those topics as a series of facts.

 

#1. Web hosting gives companies the servers they need to get online.

 

Web hosting is the service of providing Internet-related infrastructural plans to businesses and others. Organizations that do not have their own datacenters, want to move quickly to get started on a project, or do not want to manage servers themselves will use a web host for server space, file maintenance, and online services.

 

#2. Web hosting is split into three major categories.

 

Web hosting is, generally, also sometimes called website hosting or simply hosting. However, people will talk about hosting in terms of the individual category – the major ones of which are:

 

shared hosting: many accounts on one physical machine with a single operating system and unguaranteed resources. (lowest cost)

 

VPS hosting: a smaller number of accounts per machine, each of which has their own operating system and guaranteed resources. (slightly higher cost than shared)

 

dedicated hosting: one account per machine. (significantly higher cost than shared)

 

Related specifically to our topic of VPS, as you can see above, VPS hosting is fundamentally an effort to find “the best of both worlds” – the middle-ground between the flexibility and power of dedicated hosting and the affordability of shared hosting.

 

#3. Many people come to web hosting companies for speed.

Often, companies use web hosting providers for access to their fast web connections. If an organization were to host its own servers, it would be costly to get access to similarly strong data networks. Basically, the business that buys hosting services is leveraging the shared cost of a speedy Internet connection to store and serve its files both internally and externally.

 

#4. Web hosting is an industry that was originally created by the Internet.

 

When the Internet first became publicly available as a mass-market service (the early 1990s), those who were interested in creating websites had to have their own servers. Since servers are costly, and the maintenance of them can be highly technical, there was a potential business need for web hosting. However, the first step was to build servers and create web hosting packages that would meet the needs of many users at the lowest possible cost.

 

#5. Web hosting became prominent for meeting a common business need.

 

Web hosting grew as a business when it became clear that (unsurprising to us now) not everyone wants to host a server themselves. The basic business idea, in the early days, was that it would be a good business to buy servers and rent out the resources of them at a reduced cost to customers that want to run a website – regardless of (and, in a manner, completely irrelevant and separate from) the technical aspects related to hardware.

 

#6. Web hosting demand was minuscule in the beginning, and key statistics show us why it has grown exponentially.

 

Demand was initially not high for web hosting for three basic reasons:

  •  * the amount of people online was low;
  •  * web hosting was an emergent field that was below the surface of public awareness (“farther below,” really, since many people are still unfamiliar with the field); and
  •  * web hosting was costlier because there was less competition.

These figures from The Next Web give us an immediate sense of how mammoth the Internet really is now in size. In turn, these numbers, from January 2017, tell us why web hosting companies have become of ever-increasing use to business. [source]

  •  * There are 7.476 billion people on the planet (with 54% of us in urban settings).
  •  * The total population of Internet users worldwide is 3.773 billion, a 50% penetration of the possible market (so, in a way, it’s only half as ubiquitous as it seems globally).
  •  * Active social media users are a smaller population – at 2.789 billion people, that’s “merely” 37% of everyone in the world.
  •  * Interestingly, the number of mobile users, at 4.917 billion, is higher than the number of Web users.

 

#7. The business world was revolutionized by web hosting.

 

Everyone talks about the disruption of the Internet. That digital disruption that has changed our lives in so many ways for the better would not have been possible without web hosting – which supplied the convenience to allow businesses to get online in a structured and trusted manner. The changes were really business-wide and impacted almost every industry.

 

Specifically, a major aspect of that disruption was in marketing. Marketers had to completely change their approach as websites became increasingly critical platforms for the branding of businesses. What used to be print became digital – following the same basic pattern of magazines and newspapers.

 

#8. A virtual private server (VPS) gives hosting customers greater control.

 

A VPS is a virtual server that is experienced as its own server and has its own unique operating system (OS). For better costs than dedicated hosting, while still offering a significant technological upgrade from shared hosting, a hosting company divides one physical server into guaranteed sets of resources for a number of different VPS hosting customers.

 

Typically this scenario is described as a virtual private server (VPS). However, the term virtual dedicated server (VDS) is also sometimes used.

 

#9. A VPS is a similar concept to having your own private computer.

 

A virtual private server is fundamentally about separation. It takes the form of a virtual machine to meet the needs of each individual hosting customer just as an independent PC can be dedicated for use by a single person. This type of server gives a business the same capabilities (including full root access from some providers) as a dedicated server, with several VPS machines, all with separate operating systems, running on the same machine or set of machines.

 

#10. A VPS gives a user much greater freedom than they’d have with shared hosting.

 

A VPS will usually include basic components such as web server and mail server programs; file transfer protocol (FTP) software; and possibly additional applications for e-commerce, blogging, and other core features. Since a virtual private server has its own operating system, the customer takes on the role of a super-user of the OS. In turn, they are able to install whatever software they choose that can run on that particular OS (typically a Linux distribution).

 

#11. VPS plan management creates a major distinction.

 

As virtualization technology has progressed, companies are now able to provide VPS hosting affordably. One of the most important features of VPS plans is the determination of the responsible party to manage the server. In an unmanaged setting, the user bears the responsibility to manage and monitor the server. In a managed VPS hosting setting, the hosting company is responsible.

 

#12. Virtual private servers are of use to small and large companies.

 

A typical example scenario in which a VPS is useful is when a startup or other small business wants to create and run a site but does not want to have to make an investment in a dedicated server. However, an enterprise might use VPS hosting as well. The VPS setup is helpful in those cases because it allows one user to control various servers; one might be designated for the production-level website and another for a sandbox server (so that a false version of the site can be used for testing updates, changes, and new software or plugins).

 

*****

 

Hopefully, the above facts are helpful in understanding web hosting, the virtual private server, and VPS hosting. Do you think a VPS might be right for your business? At KnownHost, you are scalable on demand, without any downtime: no migration of files or databases are required, and there are no changes in your settings. Compare plans.

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