Domain Name System (DNS) records are used to translate and store information relating to web hosting such as website IP addressing, domain name and subdomains associated, web servers, mail servers and a range of other resources that you wish to access or have accessed by others.
Name Servers are used to respond to requests, keep track of key information and generally manage the operational aspects of DNS requests.
Below is a comprehensive list of DNS records being used at this time. Keep in mind that many of these aren't common, but can be used if required.
The most common records in use include A, CNAME, MX, NS, SOA and TXT. All are explained below.